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CUSTOMER RESOURCES

Printing Glossary

A

Artwork


All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Also called art.




A4 Paper


ISO paper size 210 x 297mm used for Letterhead.




Alteration


Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given to the service bureau, separator or printer. The change could be in copy, specifications or both. Also called AA, author alteration and customer alteration.




Author's Alterations (AA's)


At the proofing stage, changes that the client requests to be made concerning original art provided. AA's are considered an additional cost to the client usually.





B

Back Up


(1) To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. (2) To adjust an image on one side of a sheet so that it aligns back-to-back with an image on the other side.




Bleed


Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming.




Blind Image


Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.




Body


The main text of work not including the headlines.




Bond paper


Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.





C

Calender


  • To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacturing.




Carbonless Paper


Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing.




CMYK


Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors.




Collate


To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.




Colour Balance


Refers to amounts of process colours that simulate the colors of the original scene or photograph.




Colour Correct


To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors.




Colour Gamut


The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-colour process printing.




Comb Bind


To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper. Also called plastic bind and GBC bind (a brand name).




Commercial Printer


Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different.




Composite Proof


Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type. Also called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof.




Cover


Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its title. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back.




Coverage


Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.




Creep


Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.




Crop Marks


Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.




Crossover


Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.




Cut Sizes


Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.




Cutting Die


Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.





D

Deboss


To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface. Also called tool.




Die


Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing.




Die Cut


To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die.




Digital Proofing


Page proofs produced through electronic memory transferred onto paper via laser or ink-jet.




Dot Gain


Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain.




Dot Size


Relative size of halftone dots as compared to dots of the screen ruling being used. There is no unit of measurement to express dot size. Dots are too large, too small or correct only in comparison to what the viewer finds attractive.




Dots-per-inch


Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors. Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch.




Drill


In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter.




Dry Back


Phenomenon of printed ink colors becoming less dense as the ink dries.




Duplex Paper


Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two thinner sheets, usually of different colors. Also called double-faced paper and two-tone paper.





E

Encapsulated Post Script file


Computer file containing both images and PostScript commands. Abbreviated EPS file.




End Sheet


Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover. Also called pastedown or end papers.




Estimate


Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation and tender.





F

Fifth Colour


Ink color used in addition to the four needed by four-colour process.




Film Laminate


Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.




Finished Size


Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.




Foil Emboss


To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp.




Foil Stamp


Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die. Also called block print, hot foil stamp and stamp.




Folder


A bindery machine dedicated to folding printed materials.




Fold Marks


With printed matter, markings indicating where a fold is to occur, usually located at the top edges.




Folio (page number)


The actual page number in a publication




Four-colour Process Printing


Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-colour images. Also called color process printing, full color printing and process printing.





G

Gate Fold


A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the gutter in overlapping layers.




Grain Long Paper


Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also called long grain paper and narrow web paper.




Grain Short Paper


Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet. Also called short grain paper and wide web paper.




Grammage


Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm).




Graphic Arts


The crafts, industries and professions related to designing and printing on paper and other substrates.




Graphic Design


Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message.




Graphics


Visual elements that supplement type to make printed messages more clear or interesting.




Grey Balance


Printed cyan, magenta and yellow halftone dots that accurately, reproduce a neutral grey image.




Grey Component Replacement


Technique of replacing grey tones in the yellow, cyan and magenta films, made while colour separating, with black ink. Abbreviated GCR. Also called achromatic colour removal.




Grey Levels


Number of distinct grey tones that can be reproduced by a computer.




GSM


The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter).




Gutter


In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edges.





H

Halftone


(1) To photograph or scan a continuous tone image to convert the image into halftone dots. (2) A photograph or continuous-tone illustration that has been halftoned and appears on film, paper, printing plate or the final printed product.




Halftone Screen


Piece of film or glass containing a grid of lines that breaks light into dots. Also called contact screen and screen.




Highlights


Lightest portions of a photograph or halftone, as compared to midtones and shadows.





I

Imposition


Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound




Ink Jet Printing


Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing.




Inserts


Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).





J

Job Number


A number assigned to a specific printing project in a printing company for use in tracking and historical record keeping.




Job Ticket


Form used by service bureaus, separators and printers to specify production schedule of a job and the materials it needs. Also called docket, production order and work order.





K

Kiss Die Cut


To die cut the top layer, but not the backing layer, of self-adhesive paper. Also called face cut.





L

Laid Finish


Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel lines simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines are close together and run against the grain; chain lines are farther apart and run with the grain.




Laminate


A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually accents existing color, providing a glossy (or lens) effect.




Landscape


Artist style in which width is greater than height. (Portrait is opposite.)




Laser Bond


Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well through laser printers.




Logo (Logotype)


A company, partnership or corporate creation (design) that denotes a unique entity. A possible combination of letters and art work to create a "sole" entity symbol of that specific unit.




Looseleaf


Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages in a publication (e.g., trim-4-drill-3).





M

Mark-Up


Instructions written usually on a “dummy."




Matte Finish


Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper.




Metallic Ink


Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal.




Metallic Paper


Paper coated with a thin film of plastic or pigment whose colour and gloss simulate metal.




Midtones


In a photograph or illustration, tones created by dots between 30 percent and 70 percent of coverage, as compared to highlights and shadows.




Mock Up


A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing instructions or direction.




Moire


Undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen tints are made with improperly aligned screens, or when a pattern in a photo, such as a plaid, interfaces with a halftone dot pattern.





N

Nested


Signatures assembled inside one another in the proper sequence for binding, as compared to gathered. Also called inset.




News Print


Paper used in printing newspapers. Considered low quality and "a short life use.”





O

Opacity


(1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents printing on one side from showing through the other side. (2) Characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.




Onion Skin


A specific lightweight type (kind) of paper usually used in the past for air mail. Seldom used today (in the typewriter era).




Overprint


To print one image over a previously printed image, such as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint.





P

Page


One side of a leaf in a publication.




Page Count


Total number of pages that a publication has. Also called extent.




Page Proof


Proof of type and graphics as they will look on the finished page complete with elements such as headings, rules and folios.




Pagination


In the book arena, the numbering of pages.




Parallel Fold


Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will produce 6 panels.




Perfect Bind


To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover. See also Burst Perfect Bind.




Perf Marks


On a "dummy" marking where the perforation is to occur.




Perforating


Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).




Pica


A unit of measure in the printing industry. A pica is approximately 0.166 in. There are 12 points to a pica.




Pixel


Short for picture element, a dot made by a computer, scanner or other digital device. Also called pel.




PMS


Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors, not PMS Colors.




Point


(1) Regarding paper, a unit of thickness equating 1/1000 inch. (2) Regarding type, a unit of measure equaling 1/12 pica and .013875 inch (.351mm).




Portrait


An art design in which the height is greater than the width. (Opposite of Landscape.)




Printer Pairs


Usually in the book arena, consecutive pages as they appear on a flat or signature.




Printer Spreads


Mechanicals made so they are imposed for printing, as compared to reader spreads.




Printing


Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image from an original such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.




Proof


Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.




Proofreader Marks


Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Also called correction marks.





Q


R

Ream


500 sheets of paper.




Resolution


Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen, disc, tape or other medium.




RGB


Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive color primaries.





S

Saddle Stitch


To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.




Satin Finish


Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.




Score


To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease.




Screen Printing


Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil.




Self Cover


Usually in the book arena, a publication not having a cover stock. A publication only using text stock throughout.




Self Mailer


A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed item capable of travel in the mailing arena independently.




Shadows


Darkest areas of a photograph or illustration, as compared to midtones and high-lights.




Slip Sheets


Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original run positioned between the "printed run" for a variety of reasons.




Solid


Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint.




Specifications


Complete and precise written description of features of a printing job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing or binding method. Abbreviated specs.




Spine


Back or binding edge of a publication




Spiral Bind


To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind.




Spot Colour or Varnish


One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as compared to flood or painted sheet.




Spread


(1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or production unit. (2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image. Also called fatty.




Step and Repeat


Prepress technique of exposing an image in a precise, multiple pattern to create a flat or plate. Images are said to be stepped across the film or plate.




Substrate


Any surface or material on which printing is done.




Supercalendered Paper


Paper calendered using alternating chrome and fiber rollers to produce a smooth, thin sheet. Abbreviated SC paper.





T

Tint


Screening or adding white to a solid color for results of lightening that specific colour.




Trim Size


The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).





U

Uncoated Paper


Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper.




Undercolour Removal


Technique of making color separations such that the amount of cyan, magenta and yellow ink is reduced in midtone and shadow areas while the amount of black is increased. Abbreviated UCR.




Universal Copyright Convention (UCC)


A system to protect unique work from reproducing without knowledge from the originator. To qualify, one must register their work and publish a (c) indicating registration.




Unsharp Masking


Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or separation appear sharper (in better focus) than the original photo or the first proof. Also called edge enhancement and peaking.




Up


Term to indicate multiple copies of one image printed in one impression on a single sheet. "Two up" or "three up" means printing the identical piece twice or three times on each sheet.




UV Coating


Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.





V

Varnish


Liquid applied as a coating for protection and appearance.




Viewing Booth


Small area or room that is set up for proper viewing of transparencies, color separations or press sheets. Also called color booth. See also Standard Viewing Conditions.




Virgin Paper


Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to recycled paper.





W


X


Y


Z


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e: work@printanddesignit.co.uk

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